(770) 974In 1950, the Acworth office was a community dial office using 355A Step-by-Step equipment. Dialing within Acworth was on a 4-digit basis. There was no local service to any other offices. To place a long distance call or to reach Information, you dialed "0" for the operator. At some point in the 1950s, local service to Marietta and Cartersville may have been added.
In 1960, the Acworth central office had been assigned the name "Webster-4", which would have corresponded to the digits "934". This was unusual since most other community dial offices did not have names.
In 1963, Acworth was added to the Atlanta metro calling area. The name "Webster-4" was dropped and the code "974" was assigned to the office when it became part of the Atlanta local area.
In 1970, dialing instructions for Ackworth were as follows:
To call Ackworth 974 numbers or Cartersville 382 numbers, dial the 7 digit number. To call all other Atlanta metro area numbers, dial "8" plus the 7 digit number.These instructions were typical for the community dial offices served by step-by-step equipment. The initial digit "8" routed the call to a tandem switch, probably in Marietta. The tandem switch then collected the 7 digit number and routed the call to the correct office.
In the mid 70s, these calls were being routed via the Marietta No. 5 Crossbar.
Some time around 1976, the step-by-step equipment was replaced with a No. 2 ESS machine.
In 2002, the office is digital.
AustellThe Austell dial office opened at some point prior to 1960 using No. 5 Crossbar equipment. The initial code was 948. It is possible that Austell had a manual office before that.
On October 2, 1960, Austell was added to the Atlanta metro calling area. Since this office used crossbar equipment, no special instructions were required to call metro numbers.
The 941 code was added in 1965 and the 944 code was added some time before 1976.
In June of 1981, the crossbar equipment was replaced with No. 1A ESS equipment.
In December of 2000, the No. 1A ESS was replaced with a No. 5 ESS.
Ring Sound from Austell Crossbar office around 1977.
319 Main St, Dallas
The Dallas office was opened some time prior to 1963. In 1963, the office prefix was 445 and the equipment used was 355A step-by-step.
On January 31, 1964, Dallas was added to the Atlanta metro calling area.
Prior to this time, all points were probably long distance except for possibly Powder Springs or Marietta. Dialing instructions were as follows:
To call Dallas 445 numbers, dial the 7 digit number. To call all other Atlanta metro area numbers, dial "8" plus the 7 digit number.These instructions were typical for the community dial offices served by step-by-step equipment. The initial digit "8" routed the call to a tandem switch, probably in Marietta. The tandem switch then collected the 7 digit number and routed the call to the correct office.
Dallas was one of the last Step-by-Step offices to be converted. It was converted to ESS or digital some time between late 1986 and 1988. After that, the "8" prefix was no longer required for local calls. It is also most likely that Dallas customers were not able to have Touch Tone service until this change occurred.
In 1997, the office is a No. 5 ESS. Codes are 443, 445, and 505.
(770) 942 949The office was opened some time before 1960 using Step-by-Step equipment.
On October 2, 1960, Douglasville was added to the Atlanta metro calling area. At that time, the code was 942. To call most metro numbers, you dialed "8" before the 7-digit number.
By 1976 the step-by-step equipment had been replaced with a No 5. Crossbar machine and the 949 prefix had been added. The crossbar equipment was replaced with DMS-100 equipment in 1984, only 8 years later.
In 2002, the office is digital.
(770) 489Around 1976, this office was built and part of Douglasville was cut over to it. It is believed that it was a No. 5A Crossbar machine. The 5A machine was based on the No. 5 Crossbar except that it was designed for small offices . It was modular and available in only two sizes, 960 lines or 1920 lines. The one installed in South Douglasville was in a trailer.
(770) 422 424 427 428 429 In 1936, the Marietta office was located at 42 1/2 West Park Sq. and consisted of a manual switchboard, probably of the common battery type.
37 Powder Springs St. SE, Marietta
In 1941, the population was around 12,000. By 1950, the population had grown to 26,000 and service was still manual. No local service was provided outside of Marietta at this time. All other points were long distance.
In 1951, a new building was constructed on Powder Springs Road and dial equipment was installed. At midnight on Saturday, December 15, the Marietta and Smyrna offices were converted to dial service at the same time. The equipment used was No. 1 Step-by-Step. When dial service was introduced, optional Smyrna Service and Atlanta Service were offered for an additional charge. Apparently, Atlanta Service worked one-way only. Customers in Atlanta could only call Marietta as a long distance call.
1951 Dialing Instructions:
Access codes "2" and "3" were available only if you paid for the additional Smyrna or Atlanta service and were blocked otherwise.
To call Marietta ..... Dial the listed number (5 digits). To call Smyrna ..... Dial "2" plus the number (5 digits). To call Atlanta ..... Dial "3" plus the number (6 digits). Information for Marietta.... 113 Information for Smyrna.... 2-113 Information for Atlanta.... 3-113 Repair Service ...... 114 Telephone Business Office... 9-9011
Marietta Telephone numbers in 1951 were 5 digits beginning with 8. In 1952, another code "9" was added. And In 1954, a third code "7" was added.
Sample 1952 telephone numbers:
Unlike Smyrna, which became a part of the Atlanta extended local area in 1958, Marietta remained long distance from Atlanta until 1960. In October of 1960, Marietta was added to the Atlanta metro calling area. This required changing telephone numbers to 7 digits. Numbers beginning with 7 became 427 and numbers beginning with 8 or 9 became 428. It is unclear how or why the two codes were merged into one.
Lee Motor Company .... 8-8113 Chapman Motor Sales... 9-9519
The new extended area service came with rather complicated dialing instructions. To call Marietta 427 and 428 numbers, Smyrna "HE" (43) numbers, Dallas "445" numbers, Acworth 974 numbers, and Woodstock 926 numbers, you dialed the 7 digit number. To call all other Atlanta metro numbers, you dialed "6" plus the number. Dialing 6 connected you to one of the Atlanta tandems, either the Downtown step-by-step tandem or the Decatur Crossbar Tandem. Crossbar tandems were set up to enforce dialing rules so that you couldn't dial "6" to reach an office that didn't need the "6" and end up routing the call through Atlanta, tying up extra facilities.
In 1960, the "424" prefix was being used for Lockheed. The main number for Lockheed at that time was 424-9411.
In 1963, another floor was added to the central office building and a No. 5 Crossbar machine was installed. In addition to provided additional lines for new Marietta subscribers, this machine provided Centrex CO Service for the Lockheed plant, taking over the "424" code, and tandem switching for Acworth, Dallas, and Woodstock. A new code "422" prefix was added for general use.
The Acworth, Dallas, and Woodstock community dial offices were added to the Atlanta metro calling area this same year and were set up to reach metro numbers by dialing "8". If no provision had been made for tandem switching in Marietta, these calls would have been routed through Downtown Atlanta or even Decatur. Calls to Marietta or other Northwest Atlanta suburbs would have then required a long "back haul", which would have been wasteful. Using the Marietta crossbar as the tandem meant that calls from these communities to Marietta and other points northwest of Atlanta could be switched there and avoid going through Atlanta.
The Marietta crossbar machine had a very unique setup for 422 customers dialing out. One of the features of common control machines, like the No. 5 Crossbar, was that they could easily be set up to translate any 3 digit office code and route the call appropriately. The machines could also choose an alternate route if the primary route was not available. This meant that customers served by these machines usually had only to dial 7 digits for all local calls, regardless of whether or not there were direct trunk routes to the destination office or not.
In Marietta, most customers were served by the original step-by-step equipment, which didn't have this capability and required an access code of "6" to reach most Atlanta metro numbers. In order to avoid having two different sets of dialing instructions for customers served out of the Marietta step-by-step machine (427 and 428 numbers) versus those served out of the Marietta crossbar (422 numbers), they wired the crossbar machine to mimic the step-by-step, requiring dialing a "6" before most Atlanta numbers. Not only was this extra digit not needed by the machine, it required awkward translation in the machine to handle it. And it wasn't a simple matter of ignoring the extra digit. The equipment had to enforce the strict rules on which offices had to be dialed without the "6" prefix and which required the "6". This may have been the only No. 5 Crossbar machine anywhere that was done this way.
Even after the installation of the crossbar machine, "6+" calls from the Marietta step-by-step machine were routed directly to Atlanta. In 1977, the Downtown Crossbar Tandem in the 51 Ivy building was handling these calls.
In 1965, the dialing instructions for Marietta customers were as follows:
To call Marietta 422, 424, 427, and 428 numbers, Smyrna 432, 435, and 436 numbers, Dallas 445 numbers, Woodstock 926 numbers, Austell 948 numbers, Douglasville 942 numbers, Powder Springs 943 numbers, and Ackworth 974 numbers, dial the 7 digit number.Some time around 1969, the new East Marietta "971" Office was opened on Roswell Road. This office cut over several thousand customers from the Marietta Main office.
To call all other Metro Atlanta calls, dial "6" plus the 7 digit number.
By 1976, several additional offices had been added to nearby exchanges. Dialing instructions were as follows:
To call Marietta 422, 424, 427, and 428 numbers, East Marietta 971, 973, and 977 numbers, Smyrna 432, 433, 434, 435, and 436 numbers, Dallas 445 numbers, Woodstock 926 numbers, Austell 941, 944, and 948 numbers, Douglasville 942 and 949 numbers, Powder Springs 943 numbers, and Ackworth 974 numbers, dial the 7 digit number.The new South Douglasville central office "489" could not be dialed without the "6" prefix even though Douglasville's main office was dialed direct.
To call all other Metro Atlanta calls, dial "6" plus the 7 digit number.
Early in 1980, a new No.1 ESS machine was installed. All customers served out of the step-by-step and crossbar equipment were cut over to the ESS machine at the same time. The Woodstock office was cut over on the same night. When the cutover occurred, the "6" code for calling Atlanta Metro numbers was eliminated.
In 1981, the 429 code was added to the Marietta ESS.
Some time prior to 1999, a No. 5 ESS machine replaced the 1A ESS machine.
Ring Sound from Smyrna Step-by-Step office around 1977.
(770) 971 973 977 578The East Marietta office opened around 1969. Using No. 5 Crossbar equipment, the first code was 971. By 1976, additional codes 973 and 977 had been added.
2215 Roswell Road NE, Marietta
The No. 5 Crossbar equipment was replaced with No. 1A ESS on September 20, 1981 and that equipment was replaced in 1999 with No. 5 ESS. The 578 code was added some time between 1985 and 1998.
(770) 943The Powder Springs dial office opened some time prior to 1960. The equipment used was No. 355A Step-by-Step.
On April 2, 1961, Powder Springs was added to the Atlanta metro calling area. At this time, the office code was 943.
In 1976, the dialing instructions for Powder Springs customers were as follows:
To call Marietta 422, 424, 427, 428, 971, 973, and 977 numbers, Austell 941, 944, and 948 numbers, and Powder Springs 943 numbers, dial the 7 digit number. To call all other Metro Atlanta calls, dial "8" plus the 7 digit number.Some time between 1985 and 1988, the step-by-step equipment was replaced with digital switching equipment..
Ring Sound from Powder Springs Step-by-Step office around 1977.
1369 Spring Street SE, SmyrnaPrior to 1951, the Smyrna office was a manual, common battery switchboard. Most likely, all points outside of Smyrna were considered long distance.
At midnight on Saturday, December 15, 1951, the Marietta and Smyrna offices were converted to dial service at the same time. The equipment used was No. 1 Step-by-Step. Calling within Smyrna was on a 5 digit basis, all telephone numbers beginning with "5". Local service from Smyrna to Marietta and Atlanta were offered for an additional charge.
1951 Dialing Instructions:
Access codes "2" and "3" were available only if you paid for the additional
To call Smyrna ..... Dial the listed number (5 digits). To call Marietta ..... Dial "2" plus the number (5 digits). To call Atlanta ..... Dial "3" plus the number (6 digits). Information for Smyrna.... 113 Information for Marietta.... 2-113 Information for Atlanta.... 3-113 Repair Service ...... 114
Marietta or Atlanta service and were blocked otherwise.
In 1952, Smyrna was added to Atlanta's Extended Area Service (EAS), making calls between Atlanta and Smyrna local for all customers. Presumably, Marietta local service was also made standard at this point.
In 1957, to incorporate Smyrna more fully into the Atlanta metro calling area, Smyrna numbers were changed to 7 digits and the office was given the name "Hemlock". Telephone numbers went from being 5 digit numbers starting with "5" to 7 digit numbers starting with "Hemlock-5". The name Hemlock had previously belonged to the manual office on Crescent Avenue in Midtown. That office was taken out of service in 1951. Once Smyrna customers had 7 digit numbers, an access code was no longer required for Atlanta customers to dial Smyrna. But Smyrna still required a "3" to reach Atlanta and a "2" to reach Marietta
In 1960, office names in Atlanta were on the way out. New telephone numbers were being written with just two letters and 5 digits. Smyrna's "Hemlock-5" was now written as "HE-5" and a new code "HE-6" was added. In October of 1960, when Marietta was added to Atlanta's Extended Area Service and Marietta telephone numbers were changed to 7 digits, Smyrna customers were instructed to dial 7 digits when calling Marietta, eliminating the original access code.
In 1967, office names were mostly forgotten. The original codes were now 435 and 436 and a new code 432 was added to the office.
At some point in the 1970s, No 1A-ESS machine was installed in Smyrna and began service with the 434 code. This created the same dilemma as the Crossbar 5 installation did in Marietta in 1963. With ESS, the normal practice was to use 7 digits for all local calls and not to require a special access code to call Atlanta Metro offices. To set up the ESS to serve new 434 customers in Smyrna without an access code while keeping the access code "3" for existing step-by-step customers would have created confusion.
Since ultimately the ESS would replace the step-by-step, it would have made no sense to make the ESS mimic the step-by-step. So, instead, the step-by-step office was modified to eliminate the access code and route all calls on a 7-digit basis. This was done by making heavy use of the ESS machine in the same building. Calls dialed in the step office to 42 codes and 43 codes were handled by the step equipment alone. Calls to almost everything else were switched to the ESS machine on the first or second digit for through switching. This must have required the addition of quite a bit of equipment to the step office.
A 433 code was added to the ESS machine a few years later and some time around 1980, the step-by-step equipment was retired and all customers were moved to the ESS equipment.
Smyrna - Powers Ferry
(770) 850 858 953 955 956 Prior to the opening of this office, customers would have been served out of the Smyrna, Marietta Main, East Marietta, Sandy Springs, and Buckhead offices. The office opened in 1976. The original equipment was No. 1A ESS. The first prefix was 955.
1732 Powers Ferry Road, Marietta
At some point in the 1990s, the 1A ESS equipment was replaced with a DMS-100.
The 953 and 956 prefixes were added some time between 1977 and 1990.
WoodstockIn 1950, the Woodstock office was a Community Dial Office using 4 digit telephone numbers. The equipment in use was 355A Step-by-Step. All calls outside of Woodstock were long distance calls and were placed through the operator. There were no special codes for Directory Assistance or other services. Customers were instructed to dial "0".
Some time between 1951 and 1960, local calling was extended to Canton and to Marietta.
In 1963, Woodstock was added to the Atlanta metro calling area. To call Woodstock 926 or Canton 479 numbers, you dialed 7 digits. To call all other Metro Atlanta numbers, you dialed "8" before the number. These calls were routed via the new Marietta No. 5 Crossbar.
In early 1980, the office was cut over to ESS. The Marietta Main office was cut over on the same night. The equipment might have been No. 2 ESS or could have been DMS-100.
In 2002, the office is digital.
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